Studies done using the in vivo mouse model of population analysis of mesothelium showed that dialysis solutions containing high concentrations of glucose induced the development of a hypertrophic phenotype. Since these changes were neither related to the low pH nor to the presence of lactate buffer, we hypothesized that the presence of glucose was at the origin of the observed alterations. Theoretical analysis of the problem points to three possible mechanisms: hyperosmolality; metabolic changes derived from the high-glucose concentration itself, and/or the presence of products derived from the nonenzymatic degradation of glucose. The present study was designed to demonstrate or rule out the eventual effect of hyperosmolality upon the monolayer, applying the in vivo mouse model of population analysis of mesothelium. For this purpose, morphometric observations made in mice injected once a day during 30 consecutive days with a filter-sterilized 4.25% solution of mannitol (233.29 mM) were compared with those seen in intact mice and in a previously reported group of animals exposed to heat-sterilized fluid, having an equimolar concentration of glucose (235.9 mM), and the same osmolality (486 mosm/l) and electrolyte concentrations. The main findings observed in the mannitol-treated mice during the period of exposure included increased cell size and cytoplasmic surface area, as well as decreased cell viability. The regenerative capabilities of the exposed mesothelium remained intact. After a recovery period of 7 days, the aforementioned parameters reverted to normal values. This pattern is significantly different from the hypertrophic, senescent and low regenerative phenotype observed in mice treated with the high-glucose concentration solution. We conclude that, at least in the in vivo and in situ setup, the detrimental effects of hyperosmolality alone upon the exposed mesothelium are quite limited and fully reversible within a recovery period of 7 days.