β2-Microglobulin-associated amyloidosis has emerged as a major complication of long-term renal replacement therapy. The syndrome is confined to those patients on nontransplant modes of therapy. It does not occur in patients with a functioning renal transplant or, if already present, it does not progress any further in such patients. In the population of ESRD patients on dialysis, β2-microglobulin-associated amyloidosis affects most patients treated for more than 15 years and is a cause of significant morbidity and in rare cases even mortality. The present review, which is based on the presentation of a typical case, discusses the current knowledge on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prevention and therapy of β2-microblobulin-associated amyloidosis.