The raw carp bile has both nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects which are not well known. Recently, we studied 13 patients who had toxic acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis after ingestion of raw bile of carp in 3, grass carp in 8 and silver carp in 2 cases. The purpose of this report is to alert physicians to this very rare cause of toxic acute renal failure and hepatitis. All patients presented initially with gastrointestinal upset after eating. These symptoms were followed by oliguria in 7 patients (54%), hematuria was noted in 10 (77%) and jaundice in 8 patients (62%). Elevation of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and transaminases lasted for about 3 weeks. The severity of the symptoms depended on the amount of bile ingested. All the patients recovered with conservative therapy and hemodialysis. Biopsy of the kidney revealed findings compatible with acute tubular necrosis similar to that produced by other nephrotoxins. Biopsy of the liver revealed findings consistent with acute toxic hepatitis. Both suggest toxic effects of carp bile as a cause of toxic acute renal failure and hepatitis.

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