To evaluate the function of parathyroid oxyphil cell in chronic renal failure, we studied the histopathological findings of 148 parathyroid glands of 42 patients (29 males, 13 females) on maintenance hemodialysis. The individual and total weights of resected parathyroid specimens in each patient were recorded. Using the morphometrical analyzing system, we measured the oxyphil cell area and total area in each excised section taken through the maximum diameter, to estimate them in each patients. According to the fractional ratio (R:oxyphil cell area/total area), patients were divided into four groups: group I (R < 1%), group II (1%≤ < 5%), group III (5% ≤ R < 10%) and group IV (10% ≤ R). There were no differences in age, duration of hemodialysis and serum C-PTH level among the different groups. There was a positive correlation not only between total glandular weight and serum C-PTH level, but also between total glandular weight and total area, and also a positive correlation was found between serum C-PTH level and total area. No tendency was found between oxyphil cell area and serum C-PTH level. However, in 15 patients whose oxyphil cell area was more than 10 mm2, there was a negative correlation between the area and serum C-PTH level. Also, in 16 patients whose R was more than 5%, there was a negative correlation between the rate and serum C-PTH level. These results suggested that oxyphil cell in chronic renal failure might not secrete PTH.