Active (A) and inactive (I) plasma renin concentrations (PRC) were examined during haemodialysis in relation to blood pressure and body weight changes. Patients had either one (n = 15) or two (n = 51) remnant kidneys in situ, or were anephric (n = 4). 6 of the two remnant kidney patients had non-functioning renal allografts. Inactive renin was activated by acidification. Renin assay was by enzyme kinetic technique using sheep substrate and angiotensin I radioimmunoassay. Cryoactivation during handling was excluded. For the whole patient group the proportion of IPRC was inversely related to APRC in pre-dialysis plasma (p < 0.001). APRC and IPRC did not change with heparinisation nor did activation of renin occur across the dialyser. Dialysis with up to 3 kg reduction in body weight did not consistently raise APRC or IPRC. Blood pressure was not significantly correlated with IPRC or APRC during dialysis. In all situations a high APRC was associated with a low IPRC: APRC ratio consistent with preferential secretion of the active form and/or consumption of the inactive renin zymogen.