Background/Aims: This study investigated whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using icodextrin were at a reduced risk of stroke. Methods: From Taiwan National Health Insurance data, it was found that there were 6,796 new end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis between 2005 and 2011. We compared the risk of stroke between PD patients with or without icodextrin treatment. The follow-up period began from the date of PD initiation to the end of 2011. The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze the risk of stroke. Results: Among PD patients, the icodextrin users had both a lower incidence and risk of stroke than icodextrin non-users (incidence: 22.4 vs. 25.2/1,000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI 0.63–0.93). The results were similar in models considering death a competing risk (overall: adjusted subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.78, 95% CI 0.63–0.94). Icodextrin users also had a lower risk of ischemic stroke with or without considering death a competing risk (adjusted SHR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57–0.89 and adjusted HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59–0.93, respectively), compared to non-users. Conclusion: The use of icodextrin is associated with a lower incidence and risk of stroke in PD patients.

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