Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is caused by various etiologies, with mitochondrial dysfunction being one of the causes. FSGS is known to be associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), which is a subclass of mitochondrial disease. However, it has rarely been reported in other mitochondrial disease subclasses. Here, we reported a 20-year-old man diagnosed with FSGS associated with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 3243A>G mutation. He presented with left ptosis, short stature, mild sensorineural deafness, and cardiac conduction block. A renal biopsy sample showed segmental sclerosis and adhesions between capillaries and Bowman’s capsule, indicating FSGS. Electron microscopy demonstrated abnormal aggregated mitochondria in podocytes, and the basement membrane and epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule. Skeletal muscle biopsy also showed accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. mtDNA analysis identified heteroplasmic mtDNA 3243A>G mutation with no large-scale deletions. From these findings, we diagnosed the case as CPEO with multi-organ involvement including FSGS. Our report demonstrates that CPEO, as well as MELAS, can be associated with FSGS. Because mitochondrial disease presents with a variety of clinical symptoms, atypical cases with non-classical manifestations are observed. Thus, mitochondrial disease should be considered as an underlying cause of FSGS with systemic manifestations even with atypical phenotypes.