Renal hypoplasia may take several forms. Among these the best known is perhaps renal dysplasia in which the parenchyma is maldeveloped. Other forms of hypoplasia, in which the renal parenchyma is normally formed but merely diminished in amount, do exist and may have severe clinical consequences. The finding at postmortem examination of anatomically small kidneys in children who suffered excessive or unexplained dehydration has prompted the thought that renal tubular insufficiency may result from renal hypoplasia.

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