Objective: Some patients who had carried out long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis discontinued the treatment because of progressive peritoneal fibrosis. It has been previously reported that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is one of the factors that induces peritoneal fibrosis. Also, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a role in the prevention of fibrosis and in inhibiting TGF-β1 production. In this study, we examined the effects of HGF on peritoneal fibrosis by TGF-β1 induced by high concentrations of D-glucose. Design: We transfected a full-length human HGF cDNA in an expression vector into human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) using the calcium phosphate method. Transfected HPMCs were cultured with high concentrations of D-glucose solution and co-cultured with fibroblasts using a transwell system. Cell proliferation was determined using the Tetra Color One method. TGF-β1 and HGF protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In addition to recombinant HGF, the growth inhibition of HPMCs by high concentration D-glucose or TGF-β1 was significant. By transfecting HGF cDNA into HPMCs, growth inhibition by high concentration D-glucose was completely restored. Furthermore, the production of TGF-β1 was also significantly decreased. Conclusion: These results suggested that exogenous HGF could possibly prevent peritoneal fibrosis.