Background: The therapeutic use of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin (DDP) in the elderly is limited by its nephrotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of short-term calorie restriction (CR) on DDP-induced nephrotoxicity in aged rats. Methods: A group of 25-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: ad libitum (AL) and CR, which were fed 60% of the food consumed by AL rats for 8 weeks. The two groups were each further randomly divided into two subgroups: OAL control, OAL+DDP, OCR control, and OCR+DDP. A single dose of DDP (6 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. Functional and structural changes of the kidneys were evaluated quantitatively by biochemical, histopathological, and morphometric analyses. Results: At the end of the 8 weeks, rats in the OCR group lost 14.8% more body mass than rats in the OAL group. Pretreatment with CR had several effects: (1) it reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, (2) it reduced the magnitude of the renal tubular epithelial damage, and (3) it significantly reduced the incidence of activated caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive cells in kidneys injured by DDP. However, SIRT1 had the opposite trend after DDP application between the two groups. Conclusions: Short-term CR exhibits a renoprotective effect in experimental DDP-induced renal injury, the mechanism of which may involve CR antiapoptotic effects and promotion of SIRT1.