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Background: There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the worldwide distribution of ALS is far from uniform. This is evident through variations in the epidemiology, genetics, and phenotypical characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other motor neuron diseases (MND) across different regions. However, comprehensive ALS epidemiological studies are still lacking in many parts of the world, especially in Africa. Therefore, we propose the establishment of a population-based register for ALS/MND in Egypt, an important part of Africa with a population of more than 100 millions of people. Summary: Given Egypt's distinctive social and demographic characteristics, it is highly recommended to employ specific, recently developed epidemiological techniques for assessing the prevalence and incidence of these diseases within the country. By utilizing these methods, we can gather invaluable data that will contribute to a deeper understanding of ALS and enable us to effectively address its impact on the population of Egypt. Key Messages: Our goal with this pioneering ALS/MND population-based register in Egypt is to define the burden of ALS in this part of Africa and to increase the chances for this consanguineous population to get access to modern individualized genetic therapies. Additionally, we aspire to uncover potential environmental factors and gene-environment interactions that contribute to the development of ALS. This knowledge of MND individual and group risk in Egypt will not only open doors for interventions but also provide opportunities for future research and discovery.

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