The present outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2, an influenza virus with neurotropic potential, presents with neurological manifestations in a large proportion of the affected individuals. Disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system are all present, while stroke, ataxia, seizures, and depressed level of consciousness are more common in severely affected patients. People with these severe complications are most likely elderly with medical comorbidities, especially hypertension and other vascular risk factors. However, postinfectious complications are also expected. Neurological disorders as sequelae of influenza viruses have been repeatedly documented in the past and include symptoms, signs, and diseases occurring during the acute phase and, not rarely, during follow-up. Postinfectious neurological complications are the result of the activation of immune mechanisms and can explain the insurgence of immune-mediated diseases, including the Guillain-Barré syndrome and other diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system that in the past occurred as complications of viral infections and occasionally with vaccines. For these reasons, the present outbreak calls for the introduction of surveillance systems to monitor changes in the frequency of several immune-mediated neurological diseases. These changes will determine a reorganization of the measures apt to describe the interaction between the virus, the environment, and the host in areas of different dimensions, from local communities to regions with several millions of inhabitants. The public health system, mainly primary care, needs to be strengthened to ensure that research and development efforts are directed toward right needs and directions. To cope with the present pandemic, better collaboration is required between international organizations along with more research funding, and tools in order to detect, treat, and prevent future epidemics.

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