Introduction: The role of risk factor profile in childhood and adolescence on adulthood cognitive function and whether it differs by genetic risk is still obscure. To bring this evidence, we determined cognitive domain-specific youth risk factor profiles leveraging the childhood/adolescence data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study and examined whether genetic propensity for poor cognitive function modifies the association between the risk profiles and adulthood cognitive function. Methods: From 1980, a population-based cohort of 3,596 children (age 3–18 years) has been repeatedly followed up for 31 years. Computerized cognitive test measuring (1) memory and learning, (2) short-term working memory, (3) reaction time, and (4) information processing was performed for 2,026 participants (age 34–49 years). Cognitive domain-specific youth risk profile scores, including physical and environmental factors, were assessed from the data collected at baseline and categorized into favourable, intermediate, and unfavourable. A polygenic risk score for a poor cognitive function was categorized into low, intermediate, and high risk. Results: At all genetic risk levels, a favourable youth risk factor profile is associated with better learning and memory, short-term working memory, and information processing compared to unfavourable risk profile (e.g., β = 0.501 SD, 95% CI: 0.043–0.959 for memory and learning among participants with high genetic risk). However, no significant interactions were observed between the youth risk factor profile score and genetic propensity for any cognitive domain (p > 0.299 for all). Conclusion: A favourable youth risk factor profile may be beneficial for cognitive function in adulthood, irrespective of genetic propensity for poor cognitive function.

1.
Cheng
ST
.
Cognitive reserve and the prevention of dementia: the role of physical and cognitive activities
.
Curr Psychiatry Rep
.
2016
;
18
(
9
):
85
. Current Medicine Group LLC.
2.
Knopman
DS
,
Gottesman
RF
,
Sharrett
AR
,
Tapia
AL
,
DavisThomas
S
,
Windham
BG
,
Midlife vascular risk factors and midlife cognitive status in relation to prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study
.
Alzheimers Dement
.
2018
;
14
:
1406
15
.
3.
Harada
CN
,
Natelson Love
MC
,
Triebel
KL
.
Normal cognitive aging
.
Clin Geriatr Med
.
2013
;
29
:
737
52
. .
4.
Stern
Y
,
Barulli
D
.
Cognitive reserve
.
Handb Clin Neurol
.
2019
;
167
:
181
90
. Elsevier B.V .
5.
Rajan
KB
,
Wilson
RS
,
Weuve
J
,
Barnes
LL
,
Evans
DA
.
Cognitive impairment 18 years before clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease dementia
.
Neurology
.
2015
;
85
:
898
904
. .
6.
Najar
J
,
Ostling
S
,
Gudmundsson
P
,
Sundh
V
,
Johansson
L
,
Kern
S
,
Cognitive and physical activity and dementia: a 44-year longitudinal population study of women
.
Neurology
.
2019
;
92
:
e1322
30
.
7.
Livingston
G
,
Sommerlad
A
,
Orgeta
V
,
Costafreda
SG
,
Huntley
J
,
Ames
D
,
Dementia prevention, intervention, and care
.
Lancet
.
2017
;
390
:
2673
734
.
8.
Rovio
SP
,
Pahkala
K
,
Nevalainen
J
,
Juonala
M
,
Salo
P
,
Kähönen
M
,
Cardiovascular risk factors from childhood and midlife cognitive performance: the Young Finns Study
.
J Am Coll Cardiol
.
2017
;
69
:
2279
89
.
9.
Raitakari
OT
,
Juonala
M
,
Ronnemaa
T
,
Keltikangas-Järvinen
L
,
Räsänen
L
,
Pietikäinen
M
,
Cohort profile: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study
.
Int J Epidemiol
.
2008
;
37
:
1220
6
.
10.
Rovio
SP
,
Pahkala
K
,
Nevalainen
J
,
Juonala
M
,
Salo
P
,
Kähönen
M
,
Cognitive performance in young adulthood and midlife: relations with age, sex, and education-the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study
.
Neuropsychology
.
2016
;
30
:
532
42
.
11.
Smith
PJ
,
Need
AC
,
Cirulli
ET
,
Chiba-Falek
O
,
Attix
DK
.
A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with “traditional” neuropsychological testing instruments
.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol
.
2013
;
35
:
319
28
. .
12.
Fowler
KS
,
Saling
MM
,
Conway
EL
,
Semple
JM
,
Louis
WJ
.
Computerized delayed matching to sample and paired associate performance in the early detection of dementia
.
Appl Neuropsychol
.
1995
;
2
:
72
8
. .
13.
Kim
C
,
Lee
JY
,
Ha
TH
,
Choi
JH
,
Yu
EM
,
Lee
SJ
,
The usefulness of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) for assessing cognitive functions in the elderly: a pilot study
.
J Korean Ger Soc
.
2009
;
13
:
69
78
.
14.
Torgersen
J
,
Flaatten
H
,
Engelsen
BA
,
Gramstad
A
.
Clinical validation of Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery in a Norwegian epilepsy population
.
J Behav Brain Sci
.
2012
;
02
(
01
):
108
16
. .
15.
Sexton
CE
,
McDermott
L
,
Kalu
UG
,
Herrmann
LL
,
Bradley
KM
,
Allan
CL
,
Exploring the pattern and neuronal correlates of neuropsychological impairment in late-life depression
.
Psych Med
.
2012
;
42
:
1195
202
.
16.
Gonçalves
MM
,
Pinho
MS
,
Simões
MR
.
Effects of socio-demographic variables on performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Test for the assessment of dementia and Portuguese norms for older adults living in retirement homes
.
Clin Neuropsychol
.
2016
;
30
:
284
317
.
17.
Gonçalves
MM
,
Pinho
MS
,
Simões
MR
.
Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge neuropsychological automated tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes
.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult
.
2016
;
23
:
251
63
.
18.
Teo
YY
,
Inouye
M
,
Small
KS
,
Gwilliam
R
,
Deloukas
P
,
Kwiatkowski
DP
,
A genotype calling algorithm for the illumina BeadArray platform
.
Bioinformatics
.
2007
;
23
:
2741
6
.
19.
Browning
BL
,
Browning
SR
.
A unified approach to genotype imputation and haplotype-phase inference for large data sets of trios and unrelated individuals
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2009
;
84
:
210
23
. .
20.
Vilhjalmsson
BJ
,
Yang
J
,
Finucane
HK
,
Gusev
A
,
Lindström
S
,
Ripke
S
,
Modeling linkage disequilibrium increases accuracy of polygenic risk scores
.
Am J Hum Genet
.
2015
;
97
:
576
92
.
21.
Savage
JE
,
Jansen
PR
,
Stringer
S
,
Watanabe
K
,
Bryois
J
,
de Leeuw
CA
,
Genome-wide association meta-analysis in 269,867 individuals identifies new genetic and functional links to intelligence
.
Nat Genet
.
2018
;
50
:
912
9
.
22.
Porkka
KV
,
Raitakari
OT
,
Leino
A
,
Laitinen
S
,
Räsänen
L
,
Rönnemaa
T
,
Trends in serum lipid levels during 1980–1992 in children and young adults. The cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study
.
Am J Epidemiol
.
1997
;
146
:
64
77
.
23.
Friedewald
WT
,
Levy
RI
,
Fredrickson
DS
.
Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge
.
Clin Chem
.
1972
;
18
:
499
502
. .
24.
Herbert
V
,
Lau
KS
,
Gottlieb
CW
,
Bleicher
SJ
.
Coated charcoal immunoassay of insulin
.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
.
1965
;
25
:
1375
84
. .
25.
Juonala
M
,
Viikari
JS
,
Rönnemaa
T
,
Taittonen
L
,
Marniemi
J
,
Raitakari
OT
.
Childhood C-reactive protein in predicting CRP and carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study
.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol
.
2006
;
26
:
1883
8
. .
26.
Telama
R
,
Viikari
J
,
Välimäki
I
,
Siren-Tiusanen
H
,
Akerblom
HK
,
Uhari
M
,
Atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and adolescents. X. Leisure-time physical activity
.
Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl
.
1985
;
318
:
169
80
.
27.
Telama
R
,
Yang
X
,
Leskinen
E
,
Kankaanpää
A
,
Hirvensalo
M
,
Tammelin
T
,
Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood
.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
.
2014
;
46
:
955
62
.
28.
Juonala
M
,
Pitkanen
N
,
Tolonen
S
,
Laaksonen
M
,
Sievänen
H
,
Jokinen
E
,
Childhood exposure to passive smoking and bone health in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study
.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab
.
2019
;
104
:
2403
11
.
29.
Kivimaki
M
,
Smith
GD
,
Elovainio
M
,
Pulkki
L
,
Keltikangas-Järvinen
L
,
Talttonen
L
,
Socioeconomic circumstances in childhood and blood pressure in adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study
.
Ann Epidemiol
.
2006
;
16
:
737
42
.
30.
Aartsen
MJ
,
Cheval
B
,
Sieber
S
,
Van der Linden
BW
,
Gabriel
R
,
Courvoisier
DS
,
Advantaged socioeconomic conditions in childhood are associated with higher cognitive functioning but stronger cognitive decline in older age
.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
.
2019
;
116
:
5478
86
.
31.
Ayaz
E
,
Shenkin
SD
,
Craig
L
,
Starr
JM
,
Deary
IJ
,
Whalley
LJ
,
Early-life determinants of cognitive ability in childhood and old age
.
Lancet
.
2012
;
380
:
S23
.
32.
Skogen
JC
,
Øverland
S
,
Smith
AD
,
Mykletun
A
,
Stewart
R
.
The impact of early life factors on cognitive function in old age: the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)
.
BMC Psychol
.
2013
;
1
:
16
. .
33.
Everson-Rose
SA
,
Mendes de Leon
CF
,
Bienias
JL
,
Wilson
RS
,
Evans
DA
.
Early life conditions and cognitive functioning in later life
.
Am J Epidemiol
.
2003
;
158
:
1083
9
. .
34.
Contu
L
,
Hawkes
CA
.
A review of the impact of maternal obesity on the cognitive function and mental health of the offspring
.
Int J Mol Sci
.
2017
;
18
(
5
):
1093
. .
35.
Monthe-Dreze
C
,
Rifas-Shiman
SL
,
Gold
DR
,
Oken
E
,
Sen
S
.
Maternal obesity and offspring cognition: the role of inflammation
.
Pediatr Res
.
2019
;
85
:
799
806
.
36.
Ditto
B
,
Séguin
JR
,
Tremblay
RE
.
Neuropsychological characteristics of adolescent boys differing in risk for high blood pressure
.
Ann Behav Med
.
2006
;
31
:
231
7
. .
37.
Ritchie
K
,
Jaussent
I
,
Stewart
R
,
Dupuy
AM
,
Courtet
P
,
Malafosse
A
,
Adverse childhood environment and late-life cognitive functioning
.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
.
2011
;
26
:
503
10
.
38.
Reuben
A
,
Caspi
A
,
Belsky
DW
,
Broadbent
J
,
Harrington
H
,
Sugden
K
,
Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood
.
JAMA
.
2017
;
317
:
1244
51
.
39.
Logue
MW
,
Panizzon
MS
,
Elman
JA
,
Gillespie
NA
,
Hatton
SN
,
Gustavson
DE
,
Use of an Alzheimer’s disease polygenic risk score to identify mild cognitive impairment in adults in their 50s
.
Mol Psychiatry
.
2019
;
24
:
421
30
.
40.
Mormino
EC
,
Sperling
RA
,
Holmes
AJ
,
Buckner
RL
,
De Jager
PL
,
Smoller
JW
,
Polygenic risk of Alzheimer disease is associated with early- and late-life processes
.
Neurology
.
2016
;
87
:
481
8
.
41.
Axelrud
LK
,
Santoro
ML
,
Pine
DS
,
Talarico
F
,
Gadelha
A
,
Manfro
GG
,
Polygenic risk score for Alzheimer’s disease: implications for memory performance and hippocampal volumes in early life
.
Am J Psychiatry
.
2018
;
175
:
555
63
.
42.
Korologou-Linden
R
,
Anderson
E
,
Jones
H
,
Davey Smith
G
,
Howe
L
,
Stergiakouli
E
.
Polygenic risk scores for Alzheimer’s disease, and academic achievement, cognitive and behavioural measures in children from the general population
.
Int J Epidemiol
.
2019 Dec 1
;
48
(
6
):
1972
80
.
43.
Chaudhury
S
,
Brookes
KJ
,
Patel
T
,
Fallows
A
,
Guetta-Baranes
T
,
Turton
JC
,
Alzheimer’s disease polygenic risk score as a predictor of conversion from mild-cognitive impairment
.
Transl Psychiatry
.
2019
;
9
:
154
.
44.
Desikan
RS
,
Fan
CC
,
Wang
Y
,
Schork
AJ
,
Cabral
HJ
,
Cupples
LA
,
Genetic assessment of age-associated Alzheimer disease risk: development and validation of a polygenic hazard score
.
PLoS Med
.
2017
;
14
:
e1002258
.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.