Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in globally and particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and this burden is increasing. The burden of stroke pathological subtypes varies in terms of incidence, disability and mortality. Previous Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Studies (GBD) reports did not provide separate global burden and trends estimates for haemorrhagic stroke by primary intracerebral haemorrhage (PICH) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Aim: To summarise the GBD 2017 findings for the burden and 27-year trends for ischaemic stroke (IS), intracerebral haemorrhage and SAH by age, sex and country income level in 21 world regions and associated risk factors. Methods: Data on stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) lost and the burden of IS, PICH and SAH were derived from all available datasets from the GBD 2017 studies. Data were analysed in terms of absolute numbers and age-standardised rates per 100,000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]), with estimates stratified by age, sex and economic development level by the World Bank classification. We also analysed changes in the patterns of incidence, mortality and DALYs estimates between 1990 and 2017. Results: In 2017, there were 11.9 million incident (95% UI 11.1–12.8), 104.2 million prevalent (98.6–110.2), 6.2 million fatal (6.0–6.3) cases of stroke and 132.1 million stroke-related DALYs (126.5–137.4). Although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2017, the absolute number of people who developed new stroke, died, survived or remained disabled from stroke has almost doubled. The bulk of stroke burden (80% all incident strokes, 77% all stroke survivors, 87% of all deaths from stroke and 89 of all stroke-related DALYs) in 2017 was in low- to middle-income countries. Globally in 2017, IS constituted 65%, PICH –26% and SAH –9% of all incident strokes. Discussion: The latest GBD estimates of stroke burden in 195 countries supersede previous GBD stroke burden findings and provide most accurate data for stroke care planning and resource allocation globally, regionally and for 195 countries. Stroke remains the second leading cause of deaths and disability worldwide. The increased stroke burden continues to exacerbate a huge pressure on people affected by stroke, their families and societies. It is imperative to develop and implement more effective primary prevention strategies to reduce stroke burden and its impact.

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