Background: We aimed to provide a representation of the global burden of stroke. Methods: All cases of stroke were prospectively identified through the population-based registry of Dijon, France (1987–2012). Attack rates and mortality rates (defined as stroke leading to death within 30 days) were standardized to the European standard. Sex differences and temporal trends were evaluated by calculating rate ratios (RRs). Results: In all, 5,285 stroke cases (52.7% women) were recorded. The standardized attack rate was 98.2/100,000/year and the mortality rate was 12/100,000/year, and both were lower in women than in men (RR 0.67, p < 0.001, and RR 0.70, p < 0.001, respectively). Attack rates increased over time (RR 1.016; 95% CI 1.013–1.020) irrespective of the stroke subtype. In contrast, mortality rates declined (RR 0.985; 95% CI 0.976–0.995) with decreasing rates for ischemic stroke but no change for intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The sex gap in both attack and mortality rates remained stable. Between the first (1987–1991) and the last (2007–2012) study periods, the annual number of stroke patients who survived beyond 30 days rose by 55%, Conclusions: Increasing attack rates and decreasing mortality have led to a rise in the number of stroke survivors in the population, thus indicating a growing need for the implementation of dedicated services.

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