Background: To date, sex difference in outcomes among patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) has rarely been discussed in China as well as in the world. This study aimed to estimate the sex difference in outcomes among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients. Methods: We analyzed 1,335 men and women with ICAS who were enrolled in the Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis study. They were followed-up for ischemic stroke recurrence, any cause of death, cerebral vascular events (including transient ischemic attack, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), combined end points (including cerebral vascular events, angina or myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, peripheral vascular events), and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score of 3-6) at 1 year. Results: During the follow-up period, 59 (13.44%) combined end points were documented in women and 107 (11.94%) in men. Of the combined end points, 47 were recurrent ischemic stroke events (14 in women and 33 in men), and 51 other causes of deaths (24 in women and 27 in men). There were 349 unfavorable end points (117 in women and 232 in men). The cumulative probability of death was higher in women, but after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of stroke, current smoker, heavy drinking, hyperhomocysteinemia, and heart disease, there was no significant difference. There was also a lack of difference in 1-year ischemic stroke recurrence, cerebral vascular events, combined end points, and unfavorable outcome between women and men at 1 year. Conclusions: These results suggest no sex difference in outcome among patients with ICAS in Chinese cerebral ischemia patients.

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