Background/Aims: The prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment not dementia was investigated in the Caerphilly Prospective Study cohort (men currently aged 65–84 years). Methods: Of 1,633 men eligible for cognitive screening, 1,225 (75%) were seen, with those failing the screening criteria (CAMCOG <83 or decline in CAMCOG >9) being neurologically examined. Results: For dementia, diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, the population prevalence was 5.2% rising to 6.1% in the screened population. For cognitive impairment not dementia, the prevalence in the screened population was 15.6% giving an overall prevalence of cognitive impairment of 21.8%. Prevalence rose fivefold between ages of 65 and 84 years to reach over 50%. Conclusion: These figures are likely to underestimate actual prevalence in this population, and developing effective interventions should be a public health priority.

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