Background: In chronic hemodialysis patients, malnutrition, inflammation, depression and arteriosclerosis are pathogenetically associated suggesting the presence of malnutrition-inflammation-depression-arteriosclerosis (MIDA) complex acting as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Nutritional status was assessed by serum albumin, subjective global assessment and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Inflammation was assessed by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and DSM-IV criteria. The severity of arteriosclerosis was measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). Results: Among 81 hemodialysis patients, 44 (54.3%) had malnutrition (albumin <4.0 mg/dl with subjective global assessment score <6 and/or nPCR <1.0) and 39 (48.1%) had inflammation (hsCRP >1 mg/l). The prevalence of depression was 50.6% (n = 41). Fifty-nine (73.8%) had arteriosclerosis (measured PWV > expected PWV based on age/blood pressure/gender adjustment). The severity of the all four individual MIDA components correlated well with each other. The average number of the MIDA complication (MIDA score) was 2.27 ± 1.33. -During the 5-year follow-up, 40 cases of CVD and 26 cases of all-cause death occurred. In Cox analysis adjusted for -previous CVD, age, diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, intradialytic hypotension, B-type natriuretic peptide, -hemoglobin and hemodialysis incompliance, the MIDA score was an independent predictor of CVD and all-cause death: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval); 1.89 (1.13-3.17) and 3.48 (1.32-9.21) for an increase of 1 MIDA score. Conclusions: This study suggests the presence of MIDA complex, which is composed of malnutrition, inflammation, depression and arteriosclerosis. The MIDA complex syndrome was an independent risk factor for CVD and all-cause death in chronic hemodialysis patients.

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