Background/Aims: The development of acute renal failure (ARF) is a very rare complication in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods: We retrospectively investigated the overall incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of ARF associated with AHA. Diagnosis of AHA was made according to the typical hepatitis symptoms and positivity of immunoglobulin M anti-hepatitis A virus in 208 patients with AHA. Results: ARF was noted in 12 (5.7%) patients, and dialysis was required in 8 (66%) patients. The median duration of hospitalization for patients with ARF was 18 days (range, 6–50 days). The development of ARF was observed in older patients (p = 0.004) and in patients with diabetes (p = 0.001), excessive alcohol consumption (p = 0.01), prolonged international normalized ratio (p = 0.019), and elevated aspartate aminotransferase concentration (p = 0.034). Multivariate analysis revealed that old age (odds ratio, OR, 1.2), elevated aspartate aminotransferase concentration (OR, 1.05), and diabetes (OR, 18.5) were independent risk factors for ARF (each p < 0.001). The prognosis of patients with ARF was good, and renal function recovered completely. Conclusion: ARF associated with AHA is not rare, and the possibility of AHA should be considered in patients with ARF with hepatic dysfunction.

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