The human brain undergoes changes in morphology, volume, composition and function during brain maturation. Of the various available medical imaging investigations, ultrasound and MRI are most commonly used for assessing the developing brain. Being radiation-free and non-invasive, both imaging modalities allow in vivo serial examinations of the brain during maturation without health risks. In addition, MRI has the benefit of demonstrating certain functional aspects of the brain aside from examining morphology, further adding to the knowledge of brain development. This paper reviews the current main imaging investigations used for assessing the developing human brain, from the fetal stages to childhood.

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