Background: The long-term cognitive effects of hysterectomy and oophorectomy remain controversial. Objective: To explore the association of hysterectomy and oophorectomy with the subsequent risk of cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: We combined the results from two cohort studies graphically and conducted additional analyses. Results: Combined results from the Mayo Clinic Cohort Study of Oophorectomy and Aging and from a Danish nationwide cohort study suggest that the extent of gynecologic surgery may correlate with a stepwise increase in the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia. Compared with women with no gynecologic surgeries, the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia was increased in women who had hysterectomy alone, further increased in women who had hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy, and further increased in women who had hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy. The risk increased with younger age at the time of the surgery. Conclusion: We hypothesize that both hysterectomy and oophorectomy may have harmful brain effects via direct endocrinological mechanisms or other more complex mechanisms. Estrogen deficiency appears to play a key role in these associations, and estrogen therapy may partly offset the negative effects of the surgeries.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.