Background: Cerebrovascular lesions are frequently observed in Alzheimer brains. Not all of them are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Some of them are related to the severity of the degenerative process itself, implying additional vascular factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s dementia. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of cerebrovascular pathology on brains with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two brains with autopsy-proven FTLD were compared to 15 brains of age-matched patients without evident cognitive decline, who died from an illness not related to a brain disease. The prevalence and the severity of small ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions were determined. Vascular risk factors and the use of antithrombotic agents were also recorded. Results: The patients with FTLD were heterogeneous concerning age of onset, disease duration, clinical presentation, genetic background and neuropathological typing. Cerebrovascular risk factors and lesions were overall rare in FTLD brains without differences in their prevalence and severity compared to the controls. Only white matter changes were more prevalent in the FTLD group (p = 0.04) and showed a trend to greater severity (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Cerebrovascular pathology is not contributing to the evolution of the disease process of patients with FTLD. The isolated prevalence of white matter changes should not be considered as a vascular indicator.

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