Background: Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, the effective treatment of AD is not available currently. Multiple trials of drugs, which were developed based on the amyloid hypothesis of AD, have not been highly successful to improve cognitive and other symptoms in AD patients, suggesting that it is necessary to explore additional and alternative approaches for the disease-modifying treatment of AD. The diverse lines of evidence have revealed that lithium reduces amyloid and tau pathology, attenuates neuronal loss, enhances synaptic plasticity, and improves cognitive function. Clinical studies have shown that lithium reduces the risk of AD and deters the progress of mild cognitive impairment and early AD. Summary: Our recent study has revealed that lithium stabilizes disruptive calcium homeostasis, and subsequently, attenuates the downstream neuropathogenic processes of AD. Through these therapeutic actions, lithium produces therapeutic effects on AD with potential to modify the disease process. This review critically analyzed the preclinical and clinical studies for the therapeutic effects of lithium on AD. We suggest that disruptive calcium homeostasis is likely to be the early neuropathological mechanism of AD, and the stabilization of disruptive calcium homeostasis by lithium would be associated with its therapeutic effects on neuropathology and cognitive deficits in AD. Key Messages: Lithium is likely to be efficacious for AD as a disease-modifying drug by acting on multiple neuropathological targets including disruptive calcium homeostasis.

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