Many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Lou Gehrig’s disease are associated with the misfolding and aggregation of proteins. While the relevance of these aggregates for neuronal degeneration and their impact on cellular function is still a matter of debate, several experimental therapeutic approaches have been aimed at interfering with protein aggregation. In this review, we want to summarize the current understanding of aggregate formation and toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases with an emphasis on Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, we will discuss current treatment strategies in these diseases targeting aggregate formation and concurrent neuronal cell death in these diseases.

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