Background: Cell transplantation to replace lost neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) offers a hopeful prospect for many patients. Previously, fetal grafts have been shown to survive, integrate and induce functional recovery in PD patients. However, limited tissue availability has haltered the widespread use of this therapy and begs the demand for alternative tissue sources. In this regard, stem cells may constitute one such source. Objective/Methods: In this review we outline various types of stem cells currently available and provide an overview of their possible application for PD. We address not only the obvious possibility of using stem cells in cell replacement therapy but also the benefits of stem cell lines in drug discovery. Results/Conclusion: Stem cells carrying reporters or mutations in genes linked to familial PD are likely to contribute to the identification of new drug targets and subsequent development of new drugs for PD. Thus, stem cells are, and will be more so in the future, invaluable tools in the quest for new therapies against neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

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