Background: Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), also known as Fahr's disease, is a rare disorder characterized by widespread cerebral calcifications, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The recently identified IBGC gene, SLC20A2, encodes for type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 and its loss-of-function mutations may lead to the regional accumulation of inorganic phosphate in the brain, causing calcium phosphate deposition. Objective: To describe the clinical, neuroimaging and genetic findings in an Italian family with IBGC. Methods: The family members underwent clinical and radiological examination in order to diagnose IBGC according to standard criteria and screening for SLC20A2 gene mutations. The affected subjects also underwent neuropsychological longitudinal assessments and functional neuroimaging investigations. Results: The 2 affected family members harbored a novel missense mutation, G1618A, in the SLC20A2 gene, leading to gly540-to-arg (G540R) substitution in a highly conserved residue. This is the first SLC20A2 gene mutation associated with familial IBGC reported in the Italian population and is damaging according to all prediction programs. In the index case we observed a fair correlation between cortical areas with no calcifications but with significant hypometabolism at [18F]FDG-PET (inferior frontal premotor cortex) and the neuropsychological picture dominated by dynamic aphasia and buccofacial apraxia. Conclusion: These findings expand the catalog of SLC20A2 mutations identified to date and add dynamic aphasia to the spectrum of neuropsychological deficits reported in IBGC, supporting the use of functional neuroimaging studies for better investigation of genotype-phenotype correlations.

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