Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in brain vessel walls, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), plays a key role in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. CAA might result from impaired transport of Aβ out of the brain. Although the mechanisms underlying reduced Aβ transport are largely unknown, thickening of basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM) is likely involved. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an enzyme capable of modulating the ECM by covalently cross-linking ECM proteins. Recently, our group found that tTG and its cross-linking activity are associated with CAA pathology, suggesting a role for tTG in ECM modulation in CAA. Therefore, inhibition of tTG activity might be a promising novel therapeutic target to counteract CAA.

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