Pierre Robin syndrome/sequence (PRS) is associated with a triad of symptoms that includes micrognathia, cleft palate, and glossoptosis that may lead to respiratory obstruction. The syndrome occurs in 2 forms: nonsyndromic PRS (nsPRS), and PRS associated with other syndromes (sPRS). Studies have shown varying genetic mutations associated with both nsPRS and sPRS. The present systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive collection of published literature reporting genetic mutations in PRS. Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus were searched using the keywords: “Pierre Robin syndrome/sequence AND gene mutation.” The search resulted in 208 articles, of which 93 were excluded as they were duplicates/irrelevant. The full-text assessment led to the further exclusion of 76 articles. From the remaining 39 articles included in the review, details of 324 cases were extracted. 56% of the cases were sPRS, and 22% of the cases were associated with other malformations and the remaining were nsPRS. Genetic mutations were noted in 30.9% of the 300 cases. Based on the review, SOX9 was found to be the most common gene associated with both nsPRS and sPRS. The gene mutation in sPRS was specific to the associated syndrome. Due to the lack of original studies, a quantitative analysis was not possible. Thus, future studies must focus on conducting large-scale cohort studies. Along with generating data on genetic mutation, future studies must also conduct pedigree analysis to assess potential familial inheritance, which in turn could provide valuable insights into the etiopathogenesis of PRS.