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Issues

Medical Principles and Practice 2023, Vol. 32, No. 4-5

Review

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 217–224. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534002
Highlights of the Study

  • Tuberculosis and asthma are two major global health problems with significant morbidity and mortality.

  • Protective immunity, against both tuberculosis and asthma, correlates with the induction of T helper (Th)1 cells and their cytokines.

  • Early Secreted Antigenic Target 6 kDa (ESAT6)-like proteins are strong inducers of Th1 cells and their cytokines and thus have potential to be used as vaccines against both diseases.

Systematic Review

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 225–231. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534186
Highlights of the Study

  • Isolated component revision arthroplasty is recommended when the other component is well fixed and correctly positioned.

  • It is not recommended when the reasons for revision are wear or instability.

  • Isolated component revision arthroplasty has benefits in terms of operative time, blood loss, and costs.

  • No significant difference has been found between tibial and femoral component replacement in the partial revisions.

Original Paper

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 232–241. https://doi.org/10.1159/000533746
Highlights

  • Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) resulted in significant reductions in the body mass and insulin resistance of obese rats.

  • SG increased the glucagon-like peptide-1, GIP, and glucagon responses to a standard test meal.

  • The intracellular liver lipid content of the SG rats was lower than that of obese rats.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 242–249. https://doi.org/10.1159/000533852
Highlights of the Study

  • It is not clear whether serum osmolality directly affects platelet volume and aggregation.

  • We investigated the possible correlation of osmotic stress with mean platelet volume in vitro.

  • Hypoosmotic stress might affect in vitro aggregation of platelets in heparinized whole blood of healthy individuals.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534069
Highlights of the Study

  • Role of serotonin gene polymorphisms and serum levels of serotonin in suicidal behaviour was evaluated.

  • Serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR polymorphism and SLC6A4 intron 2 polymorphisms are associated with suicidal behaviour.

  • The mean levels of serum serotonin are significantly lower in suicidal behaviour compared to the controls.

  • In silico analysis shows a significant BIOGRID interaction for SLC6A4.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 260–271. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534125
Highlights of the Study

  • We compared obstetric outcomes in pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and an uninfected control group.

  • The most frequent presenting complaints in pregnant women were dry cough and fever. Tachycardia was the most common sign at admission. ICU admission and respiratory failure were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group. Cesarean section rate was higher in this group, with obstetric and maternal complications being the most common indications.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 272–280. https://doi.org/10.1159/000533909
Highlights of the Study

  • Fatty liver index, fibrotic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis index, and fibrosis-4 index were linked to increased odds of coronary artery calcification (CAC).

  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is linked to increased odds of CAC, regardless of confounding factors like age, sex, metabolic syndrome, and SCORE2.

  • Liver fat and assessment of fibrosis offer additional insights for evaluation of risk of cardiovascular disease.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 281–287. https://doi.org/10.1159/000533354
Highlights of the Study

  • This study demonstrates that weight and fat mass component, previously regarded as one of the causes of low back pain, are not related to it.

  • When analyzing fat mass and fat-free mass independently, no correlation was found between either type of mass and low back pain.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 288–296. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534172
Highlights of the Study

  • Administering corticosteroids via nebulizer is related to greater rates of dry eye.

  • Advanced age, smoking, and use time of the inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination are independent predictors of the development of cataracts.

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 297–307. https://doi.org/10.1159/000534155
Highlights of the Study

  • In this study, well-defined phenotypes within heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) were identified using hierarchical clustering applied to plasma concentrations of various biomarkers exploring systemic inflammation, fibrosis, or multiple mechanisms.

  • Biomarker phenogroups are characterized by significant differences in clinical parameters and cardiac structure and function abnormalities, suggesting distinctive underlying mechanisms and possibly defining therapeutic avenues suggested according to phenotypes.

  • Phenomapping enables subtle subclassification of the heterogeneous HFpEF cohort, aiming to elucidate homogeneous patient subgroups which will benefit from tailored treatments.

Brief Report

Subject Area: General Medicine
Med Princ Pract (2023) 32 (4-5): 308–312. https://doi.org/10.1159/000533801
Highlights of the Study

  • • Thrombin generation (TG) demonstrates the hypercoagulable state in antithrombin (AT)-deficient pregnancies.

  • • Measurement of TG revealed that the decrease in TG depends on the type of heparin used.

  • • Heparin administration in a homozygous type II heparin-binding site in AT-deficient pregnant women was not detectable with anti-factor Xa activity.

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