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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent form of liver cancer globally, poses a substantial health burden. HCC development is influenced by multiple risk factors including hepatitis B and C infections, excessive alcohol consumption, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and demographic variables like gender, race, and age. Although the exact etiology of HCC is not fully understood, HCC formation is a multi-step process that is contributed by the interplays of viral infection, hepatocyte oncogenic mutations, and chronic liver diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and NASH. Disease stage significantly impacts HCC prognosis, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 36% in early-stage cases to 13% in late-stage metastatic cases. Therefore, there is significant potential for life-saving and socioeconomic benefits through the implementation of surveillance programs and the introduction of low-cost screening measures for high-risk groups, such as ultrasound imaging and blood tests. Treatment options for HCC encompass surgery, liver transplantation, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Despite therapeutic advances, the treatment of advanced HCC remains a challenge. The prognosis of advanced HCC could be greatly improved with continued efforts in prevention, early detection, and treatment development. These efforts will ultimately lead to improved patient outcomes and increased chances of long-term survival.

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