Objective: This study was conducted to analyze patients’ knowledge about therapeutic goals for diabetic patients and factors associated with good knowledge. Methods: A total of 266 diabetic patients were randomly selected from 6 diabetes clinics in Kuwait to be included in a cross-sectional patient survey. Data were collected via face-to-face structured interviews using a pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was used in data analysis. Results: The response rate was 93% (n = 247). The percentages [95% confidence interval (CI)] of patients who reported knowing their recent levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure (BP), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were 5% (2–8), 54% (48–60), and 8% (5–11), respectively. The percentages (95% CI) of patients who admitted knowing the target goals for LDL-C, BP, HbA1c, fasting, and postprandial blood glucose levels were 3% (1–6), 49% (43–55), 6% (3–9), 62% (56–68) and 55% (49–61), respectively. Correct target goals for LDL-C, BP, HbA1c, fasting, and postprandial blood glucose levels were reported by 2% (1–4), 43% (37–49), 5% (2–8), 60% (54–66), and 47% (41–53), respectively. Those with a high education (OR = 4.76; 95% CI 2.34–9.68) and those with a family history of diabetes (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.50–6.19) had good knowledge about correct targets. Conclusion: The current findings revealed that lack of knowledge about recent levels of BP, LDL-C and HbA1c and therapeutic goals was alarmingly high, which highlights the need for the implementation of an effective multidisciplinary team approach to encourage patient education and self-care.