Sera were collected from 18 children with celiac disease and 49 children with other forms of chronic diarrhea. Of the 49 children with other forms of chronic diarrhea, 35 had postenteritis, 8 had giardiasis and 6 had other diagnoses. Thirty children with nongastrointestinal disorders were tested and used as controls. The sera were tested for gliadin, α-gliadin and reticulin antibodies: false-positive values in children with other forms of chronic diarrhea were encountered in 27, 45, and 4% and in 3, 3, and 0% of controls, respectively. The sensitivity in celiac disease was 89,89 and 50%, while the specificity was 71 49 and 94%, respectively. In Kuwait, postenteritis syndromes are common causes of protracted diarrhea. Antibodies to gliadins are as sensitive but significantly less specific for celiac disease (CD) than those reported in developed countries. The combined testing of antigliadin and antireticulin antibodies raised the diagnostic specificity to 94%.