Objective: To examine the role of calpain-10 SNP-44, -43, -63 and del/ins-19 in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associations with triglycerides and total cholesterol in a group of subjects residing in the Gaza Strip. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-six individuals were examined: 48 T2DM patients and 48 controls. The groups were genotyped for calpain-10 SNP-44, -43, -63, and del/ins-19. Mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction was used to examine SNP-44; del/ins-19 was examined by electrophoresis of the PCR product on agarose gel, while the restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for SNP-43 and -63. Results: There was evidence that the C allele at SNP-44 played a possible role in susceptibility to T2DM (p = 0.01). T2DM patients with G/A genotype were found to have higher levels of total cholesterol in comparison to those homozygous for allele 1 (G/G) in SNP-43. Total cholesterol levels increased in T2DM patients who are homozygous for del/ins-19 allele 2, in T2DM patients with the 121/221 haplotype combination, and in control subjects with the haplotype combination 111/121. Conclusion: SNP-44 polymorphism of the calpain-10 gene has a significant association with T2DM patients in the Gaza strip. Certain polymorphisms of calpain-10 also have associations with the levels of total cholesterol in both T2DM patients and controls.