Objective: To assess the differences in tuberculosis (TB) treatment success between Hunan and Eastern Ghana. Subjects and Methods: The study was a retrospective comparative study using 2005–2006 surveillance data from the Hunan province of China and the Eastern region of Ghana. Data analyzed were from the provincial/regional capital and a randomly selected city of lower economic status. χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to do general and stratified comparison of treatment success rates within/between the two areas. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the independent effect of explanatory variables on treatment success. Results: Generally, the treatment success rate was significantly higher in Hunan (93.1 vs. 60.7%, p = 0.000). Stratified analyses showed a similar pattern for almost all the group-specific rates. Key predictors of TB treatment success in Hunan were gender, age group, and type of city of residence whilst in Eastern Ghana treatment success was associated with only age group. Odds ratios for treatment success in Hunan were significantly lower for males (OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63, 0.97), and higher for patients resident in the provincial capital (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.62). In both countries treatment success rates decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: TB treatment success in Hunan was comparatively better than that in Eastern Ghana. Gender, age group, and type of city of residence were the key predictors of treatment success in Hunan whilst in Eastern Ghana age group was the key predictor.

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