Objective: To study the clinical presentation, histology and colonoscopic features of lower gastrointestinal polyps in Iranian children. Material and Methods: Medical reports of children with colorectal polyps were retrospectively reviewed from 1996 to 2005 at the Children’s Medical Center Hospital, Iran. A total of 563 cases were studied. Data related to age, sex, family history, signs and symptoms, the size, location, polyp types and associated lesions were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of children was 5.66 ± 2.88 years (range 2 months to 17 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 1.61:1.0. The highest incidence was between ages 2 and 10 years (85.1%). Rectal bleeding was the presenting symptom in 78.5% cases. The polyps were solitary in 94% of cases. A majority of polyps (86.3%) were juvenile and 86.7% located in the rectosigmoid area. Three percent of cases had a positive family history. One case of Turcot syndrome was also identified. Conclusion: Juvenile polyps remain the most common polyps in Iranian children. Although the presence of a solitary polyp in the rectosigmoid colon is more prevalent, in a significant number of cases they are multiple and located in proximal parts. Polyps must be removed even when asymptomatic because of their probable neoplastic potential.

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