Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma is defined as liver cancer with vascular invasion or extrahepatic metastasis that is untreatable by local therapy. In Japan, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with interferon plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or a combination of low-dose 5-FU and cisplatin, referred to as low-dose FP, is administered for treating advanced liver cancer and yields favorable outcomes. Outside Japan, the molecular targeted agent, sorafenib, is used as a first-line treatment for advanced liver cancer. New drug development for advanced liver cancer and clinical trials on combination therapy with sorafenib and HAIC are currently underway. The prognosis of advanced liver cancer will significantly improve if these clinical trials yield positive results.

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