Introduction: Genetic defects that determine uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway have been well documented, which account for approximately 40–60% of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) cases worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, nearly half of the marriages are consanguineous, resulting in a high prevalence of such genetic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of eculizumab against aHUS. Objective: We report our experience of using plasma therapy or/and eculizumab to treat children with aHUS in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to compare their clinical characteristics, genetic mutations, and treatment outcomes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 2010 and May 2017. Data, including demographic parameters, clinical presentation, hospital stay duration, need for dialysis, renal recovery, genetic mutations, and outcomes, were obtained from electronic medical records of all eligible patients. Results: Overall, 21 children with aHUS were included, of which 12 (57.1%) received eculizumab therapy and 9 (42.9%) received only plasma therapy. End-stage renal disease occurred in 7 children (33.3%), of which 4 (57.1%) received only plasma therapy and 3 (42.9%) received eculizumab therapy whose genetic mutations were not related to the complement dysregulation system. No child who received eculizumab therapy showed recurrence; however, 3 children (33.3%) who received plasma therapy alone showed recurrence. Genetic mutations were detected in 12/20 (60%) of those who underwent genetic screening. Conclusions: Children who received eculizumab therapy showed good renal recovery and maintained remission compared with children who received plasma therapy alone. Genetic mutations were detected in 60% of the patients, which was associated with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages.

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