Background: The effect of hyperuricemia on chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial, and little is known about gender as it relates to hyperuricemia and CKD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 7,053 adults in the general Chinese population in Southern China using a multi-stage stratified sampling method. In which associations between hyperuricemia and indicators of CKD (defined by albuminuria (urinary albumin-to -creatinine ratio ≥ 30mg/g) or decreased modified MDRD equation estimated GFR (<60ml/min per 1.73m2) were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, hyperuricemia was associated with increased risk of reduced renal function and CKD but not albuminuria, with odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) of 4.39 (3.38-5.70, P <0.001), 1.54 (1.31-1.82, P <0.001) and 0.96 (0.78-1.17, P =0.671), respectively. The interaction between gender and hyperuricemia with CKD was significant (P =0.010); and stratified analysis showed a stronger association of hyperuricemia with CKD in males (OR (95% CI): 2.04 (1.56-2.67), P <0.001) than in females (1.45 (1.17-1.80), P =0.001). Conclusions: We observed an independent association of hyperuricemia with CKD that was stronger in males, and this independent association in male might imply some gender specific mechanisms. These results should be confirmed in future prospective studies.

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