Background/Aims: This experimental study was designed to investigate protective and therapeutic effects of Dexpanthenol (Dxp), an alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid, on kidney damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into a control group and 4 I/R groups (1 h ischemia followed by 23 h reperfusion). Three I/R groups were treated by Dxp (500 mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 different time points (before ischemia, during ischemia and late reperfusion). The histopathological findings including apoptotic changes, and also tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and albumin (Alb) levels were determined. Results: Kidney tissue MDA levels were found to be significantly higher in the I/R group, whereas the values of GPX were lower when compared to the control group. The levels of SOD and CAT did not reach to statistical meaning level in I/R group. Dxp given during ischemia reduced the elevated MDA levels to the nearly control levels and this ameliorating effect was found as parallel to the result of GPX. Serum levels of BUN and Cr were significantly higher in I/R group. Dxp given during ischemia significantly reduced the elevated BUN and Cr levels when compared to I/R group. Renal I/R injury also induced extensive tubular necrosis, glomerular damage and apoptosis in the histological evaluation. Dxp ameliorated these histological damages in different amounts in all treatment groups. Conclusion: In this study the protective effects of Dxp against renal I/R injury has been evaluated for the first time.