Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) belong to uremic toxins and some pathological effects of AGEs are linked to RAGE (receptor for AGEs). Their precursors are detoxified by the glyoxalase (GLO) system. The A419C (E111A) polymorphism of the GLO I gene is associated with vascular disease in hemodialysis (HD) patients and some RAGE gene polymorphisms are implicated in various pathological states. Aim: To study the relationship of A419C GLO I and four RAGE polymorphisms (–429T/C, –374T/A, 2184A/G and Gly82Ser) in the prognosis of HD patients. Methods: The group studied consisted of 214 chronic HD patients prospectively followed up for 43 months. 100 patients died, 48 due to cardiovascular causes. Results: The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher mortality rate in patient-mutated homozygotes for RAGE –429CC, RAGE 2184GG and GLO I 419CC. A higher hazard risk was confirmed by the Cox proportional hazards model when wild-type homozygotes were taken as reference: RAGE –429CC 2.28 (95% CI 1.04–4.99), RAGE 2184GG 3.16 (95% CI 1.44–6.93), and GLO I 419CC 1.75 (95% CI 1.08–2.86). Both RAGE polymorphisms were also associated with cardiovascular mortality: RAGE –429CC 3.54 (95% CI 1.37–9.14) and RAGE 2184GG 5.04 (95% CI 1.93–13.11). Conclusion: In summary, our study shows for the first time a link between RAGE and GLO polymorphisms in the prognosis of HD patients.

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