MicroRNAs and sirtuins are important epigenetic regulators of gene expression and both contribute significantly to postnatal vascular development. However, the crosstalk between miRNAs and sirtuins in the modulation of angiogenesis has rarely been discussed. Here, we investigated the interactions between miR-138 and sirtuins in the process of angiogenesis. We found that overexpression of miR-138 markedly suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube-forming capacities of the endothelial cells. And, miR-138 inhibitor-treated endothelial cells showed a reversed phenotype. Furthermore, miR-138 plays a negative role in vascular development in vivo. Western blot and qPCR assays demonstrated that SIRT1 was silenced by miR-138, and a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-138 bound to the 3′-UTR of SIRT1. The re-expression of SIRT1 alleviated miR-138-mediated suppression of angiogenesis. Furthermore, silencing SIRT1 could boost the level of miR-138. And, upon miR-138 inhibitor treatment, SIRT1 silencing no longer reduced the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells significantly. These results demonstrated that the circuitry involving miR-138 and SIRT1 may participate in vascular homeostasis and also offered the possibility of identifying a new approach in the treatment of angiogenic diseases.