Background/Aim: Lactase (LCT) -13910 C>T and -22018 G>A polymorphisms associated with the lactase non-persistence (LNP)/persistence (LP) phenotypes vary globally. LP has been associated with obesity in Europeans. However, it has not been genetically evaluated in Mexico, a country with admixed population, recent introduction of dairy, and a high prevalence of obesity. Thus, we aimed to determine the distribution of the LCT polymorphisms and their association with the nutritional profile of West Mexico's populations. Methods: Genotyping of 1,196 individuals (natives and mestizos) was carried out by a Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Descriptive statistics and interpopulation analyzes were performed by SPSS, Arlequin, and Structure software. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary data were analyzed in 212 mestizos. Results: LNP genotypes mainly prevailed (CC 68.7% and GG 68.2%); both predominated in native Huicholes and Nahuas (>97.7%). Among the mestizos, the LP genotypes were associated with a higher intake of saturated fat (9.9 ± 3.9% vs. 8.5 ± 4.0%, p = 0.018; OR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.29-5.03, p = 0.006) and a daily/more frequent consumption of dairy (88.8 vs. 78.0%; p = 0.049) than LNP genotypes. Conclusion: The LNP trait was predominant in Mexicans with a major Amerindian ancestry. A daily consumption of dairy was associated with a higher intake of saturated fat in LP individuals.

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