Background: Marine omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be responsible for the variability of the plasma TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Previous studies have demonstrated that n-3 PUFA supplementation using fish oil modified the expression levels of three genes involved in the TG synthesis pathway (GPAM, AGPAT3 and AGPAT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods: A total of 210 subjects consumed 5 g/day of a fish oil supplement for 6 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured before and after the supplementation period. Three SNPs in GPAM, 13 SNPs in AGPAT3 and 35 SNPs in AGPAT4 were genotyped. Results: In an ANOVA for repeated measures adjusted for age, sex and BMI, genotype effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs1838452 in AGPAT3 as well as for rs746731 and rs2293286 in AGPAT4. Genotype × supplementation interaction effects on plasma TG levels were observed for rs2792751 and rs17129561 in GPAM as well as for rs3798943 and rs9458172 in AGPAT4 (p < 0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that SNPs in genes involved in the TG synthesis pathway may influence plasma TG levels after n-3 PUFA supplementation.

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