Background: Inclusion of seaweeds in restructured pork (RP) would improve meat health properties. Aim: The aim was to determine the effects of RP containing Himanthalia elongata on growth, organ weight, cholesterolemia, and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipose tissue of Wistar rats. Methods: The control group (C) consumed control RP, and the seaweed group (SS) consumed RP with 5% Himanthalia elongata. Animals on cholesterol-enriched diets (CholC, CholSS) consumed their corresponding basal diets with supplementary cholesterol (2.43%) plus cholic acid (0.49%) as hypercholesterolemic agents. Results: Seaweed inclusion did not modify cholesterolemia but reduced (p < 0.01) the hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary cholesterol plus cholic acid. CholC rats presented lower (p < 0.05) adipose fat and weight than C rats. Cholesterol feeding affected HSL, ACC, and FAS expression (p < 0.05), while alga consumption influenced HSL and ACC (p < 0.05). LPL was not significantly affected by both factors. CholSS rats showed decreased HSL and FAS (p < 0.05) but increased ACC (p < 0.05) expression compared with CholC rats. Conclusion:Himanthalia RP partially blocked the dietary hypercholesterolemic effect and changed the lipogenic/lipolytic enzyme expression, reducing the wasting effect of hypercholesterolemia on adipose tissue in rats.

Kopelman P: Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 2000;404:635–643.
McKeigue P, Shah B, Marmot M: Relation of central obesity and insulin resistance with high diabetes prevalence and cardiovascular risk in South Asians. Lancet 1991;337:382–386.
Carr M, Brunzell J: Abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome: importance of type 2 diabetes and familial combined hyperlipidemia in coronary artery disease risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2601–2607.
Kelishadi R: Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:62–76.
Wang Y, Lobstein T: Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 2001;6:11–25.
Jiménez-Colmenero F, Carballo J, Cofrades S: Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods. Meat Sci 2001;9:5–13.
Spanish National Nutrition Survey (Encuesta Española de encuesta dietética), 2011.
López-Lopez I, Bastida S, Ruiz-Capillas C, Bravo L, Larrea MT, Sánchez-Muniz F, Cofrades S, Jiménez-Colmenero F: Composition and antioxidant capacity of low-salt meat emulsion model systems containing edible seaweeds. Meat Sci 2009;83:492–498.
Bocanegra A, Bastida S, Benedi J, Ródenas S, Sánchez-Muniz FJ: Characteristics and nutritional and cardiovascular-health properties of seaweeds. J Med Food 2009;12:236–258.
Sánchez-Muniz, FJ, Canales A, Nus M, Bastida S, Guillén M, Corella D, Olmedilla-Alonso B, Granado-Lorencio F, Benedí J: The antioxidant status response to low-fat and walnut paste-enriched meat differs in volunteers at highcardiovascular risk carrying different PON-1polymorphisms. J Am Coll Nutr DOI: Xinet/production/jacn/live_jobs/jacn-31-03-03/layouts/jacn-31-03-03.
Bocanegra A, Benedí J, Sánchez-Muniz FJ: Differential effects of konbu and nori seaweed dietary supplementation on liver glutathione status in normo- and hypercholesterolaemic growing rats. Br J Nutr 2006;95:696–702.
Christine Bobin-Dubigeon C, Lahaye M, Guillon F, Barry JL, Gallant D: Factors limiting the biodegradation of Ulva sp. cell-wall polysaccharides. J Sci Food Agric 1997;75:341–351.
von Engelhardt W, Bartels J, Kirschberger S, Meyer zu Düttingdorf HD, Busche R: Role of short-chain fatty acids in the hind gut. Vet Q 1998;20(suppl 3):S52–S59.
Oben J, Enonchong E, Kuate D, Mbanya D, Thomas TC, Hildreth DJ, Ingolia DT, Tempesta MS: The effects of Pro AlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health. Lipids Health Dis 2007;6:20–29.
Moreira AS, González-Torres L, Olivero-David R, Bastida S, Benedí J, Sánchez-Muniz FJ: Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2010;65:290–298.
Folch J, Lees M, Sloane Stanley GH: A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 1957;226:497–509.
Livak K, Schmittgen T: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2ΔΔCT Method. Methods 2001;25:402–408.
Gómez-Ordóñez, E, Jimenez-Escrig A, Ruperez P: Dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of several edible seaweeds from the northwestern Spanish coast. Food Res Int 2010;43:2289–2294.
Beck EJ, Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, Tosh SM, Huang XF: Oat beta-glucan supplementation does not enhance the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet in overweight women. Br J Nutr 2010;103:1212–1222.
Young SA, Hung SC, Anderson WH, Albers DR, Langhorst ML, Yokoyama W: Effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose on glucose metabolism and obesity in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. J Diabetes 2012;4:85–94.
Maeda H, Tsukui T, Sashima T, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K: Seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, as a multi-functional nutrient. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17(suppl 1):196–199.
Beynen AC, Boogaard A, Van Laack HL, Katan MB: Cholesterol metabolism in two strains of rats with high or low response of serum cholesterol to a cholesterol-rich diet. J Nutr 1984;114:1640–1651.
Mahfouz MM, Kummerow FA: Cholesterol-rich diets have different effects on lipid peroxidation, cholesterol oxides and antioxidant enzymes in rats and rabbits. J Nutr Biochem 2000;11:293–302.
Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Higón E, Cava F, Viejo JM: Prevention of dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats using sunflower oil-fried sardines. Effects on cholesterol and serum enzymes. J Agric Food Chem 1992;40:2226–2231.
Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Cava F, Viejo JM, Bastida S, Higon E, Marcos A: Olive oil-fried sardines in the prevention of dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. Effects on some serum lipids and cell-damage marker enzymes. Nutr Res 1996;16:111–121.
Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Bastida S: Do not use the Friedewald formula to calculate LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2008;110:295–301.
Dawczynski C, Schäfer U, Leiterer M, Jahreis G: Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:10470–10475.
Jimenez-Escrig A, Sanchez-Muniz FJ: Dietary fibre from edible seaweeds: chemical structure, physicochemical properties and effects on cholesterol metabolism. Nutr Res 2000;20:585–598.
Kern PA: High adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity plays a causal role in the aetiology of obesity; in Angel A (ed): Progress in Obesity Research. London, J Libbey, 1996, pp 25–50.
Jormalainen V, Honkanen T: Variation in natural selection for growth and phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. J Evol Biol 2004;17:807–820.
Ragan MA, Glombitza KW: Phlorotannins, brown algal polyphenols. Prog Phycol Res 1986;4:129–241.
Koivikko R, Eränen JK, Loponen J, Jormalainen V: Variation of phlorotannins among three populations of Fucus vesiculosus as revealed by HPLC and colorimetric quantification. J Chem Ecol 2008;34:57–64.
Lasa A, Schweiger M, Kotzbeck P, Churruca I, Simón E, Zechner R, Portillo MP: Resveratrol regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase. J Nutr Biochem 2012;23:379–384.
Daumerie CM, Woollett LA, Dietschy JM: Fatty acids regulate hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor activity through redistribution of intracellular cholesterol pools. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992;89:10797–10801.
Fielding CJ: Lipoprotein receptors, plasma cholesterol metabolism, and the regulation of cellular free cholesterol concentration. FASEB J 1992;6:3162–3168.
Connor WE, Lin DS, Colvis C: Differential mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue. J Lipid Res 1996;37:290–298.
Nelson DL, Cox MM: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, ed3. New York, Worth Publisher, 2000.
Raclot T, Groscolas R, Langin D, Ferré P: Site-specific regulation of gene expression by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat white adipose tissues. J Lipid Res 1997;38:1963–1972.
Cofrades S, López-López I, Solas MT, Bravo L, Jiménez-Colmenero F: Influence of different types and proportions of added edible seaweeds on characteristics of low-salt gel/emulsion meat systems. Meat Sci 2008;79:767–776.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.