Rearing techniques for conventional and gnotobiotic nonhuman primates are described. Up to four months of age there was no significant difference in weight gain between conventionally and gnotobiotically reared chimpanzees or baboons. After four months, gnotobiotic chimpanzees exceeded their conventional counterparts in weight gain,whereas conventional baboons showed higher weight gain than gnotobiotic baboons. Gnotobiotic chimpanzees and baboons had significantly lower absolute numbers of neutrophils than their conventional counterparts, but the absolute numbers of lymphocytes were not different. The gnotobiotic rearing of marmosets is also reported.

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