There is evidence to indicate that 15 % of patients diagnosed as schizophrenic will become chronically hospitalized, and that worldwide one-third to one-half of all psychiatric beds are occupied by schizophrenic patients. In spite of these figures and the public health problem they represent, little attention is paid to chronic hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Even the most recent classification schemas fail to recognize the heterogeneity,exemplified by differential responsiveness to psychotropic drugs, within the chronic schizophrenic population. One systematic approach to classification which does address this problem has been proposed by Leonhard. In this paper, findings and procedures that demonstrate the clinical relevance of Leonhard’s system along with some preliminary results and observations from psychopharmacological studies that indicate Leonhard’s different subtypes of chronic schizophrenia may represent biologically distinct populations are presented.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.