The ability to concentrate the urine was estimated in healthy volunteers,patients with affective disorders who had never received lithium and lithium-treated patients. Patients with affective disorders who had never received lithium were found to have significantly lower concentrating capacity than healthy volunteers. However, lithium-treated patients had still lower concentrating capacity and differed significantly both from healthy volunteers and from patients who had never received lithium. Furthermore, in a subgroup of lithium-treated patients investigated twice with an interval of 6 months, a progressive decrease in concentrating capacity was found, indicating the importance of lithium therapy.

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