Brazil may have the highest absolute number of individuals infected by human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It has been suggested that the prevalence of HTLV-1 is increased in patients with skin diseases. This study shows a higher prevalence of this infection in 1,229 patients attending a Brazilian dermatology clinic (0.7%) when compared to blood donors (0.22%). Of note, one additional patient tested positive for HTLV-2. The main skin diseases described in HTLV-1 seropositives were vitiligo (2 cases), dermatophytosis (2 cases), and leprosy (2 cases). A 23-year-old woman received a diagnosis of infectious dermatitis.