Background: Obesity is commonly associated with insulin resistance (IR), and is a common cause of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue protein that enhances insulin sensitivity and has anti-atherogenic properties. Objective: This study was done to determine the adiponectin level and its relations to key components of the metabolic syndrome in obese diabetic (OD), obese non-diabetic (OB) and control [non-obese, non-diabetic (NOND)] Qatari subjects. Research design and Methods: We examined 64 (OD), 61 (OB) and 72 (NOND) male and female subjects. After a 12 h overnight fasting, blood samples were withdrawn for determination of plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, HbA1C, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C. Results: Plasma levels of adiponectin in OD (10.60 ± 3.64μg/mL) and OB (11.21 ± 3.41μg/mL) were significantly lower than NOND controls (14.73 ± 4.97μg/mL). Significant, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and BMI (r=-0.241, p<0.05), plasma glucose (r=-0.221, p<0.05), insulin (r=-0.280, p<0.05), C-peptide (r=-0.334, P<0.01), total cholesterol (r=-0.243, p<0.01,), triglycerides (r=-0.438, p<0.01), LDL-C (r=-0.214, p<0.05) and uric acid (r=-0.286, p<0.05). In addition, correlated positively with HDL-C(r=0.386, p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis, only TG was inversely associated with plasma level of adiponectin in all groups. Conclusion: This study provides the first evidence that adiponectin is reduced in Qatari obese subjects with and without diabetes. The measurement of circulating adiponectin among Qatari obese subjects is suggested to monitor cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Whether the plasma adiponectin level could be a suitable biomarker for following the clinical progress of CVD among Qatari obese and diabetic subjects warrants further investigation.

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