Specialists in engineering, human health, veterinary and animal science fields have expressed increasing concern that aerosols, combined with micro-organisms,fungi and toxic gases in farm animal buildings have the potential to cause human health problems. Air quality in production animal facilities presents a challenge to the scientific communities, governmental agencies and the industry. This paper provides updates and discusses the research needs of air quality in production animal facilities. The impact of indoor air quality on the environment and the health of human and animals is addressed. Characterisation of dust behaviour such as source identification, size distribution,deposition and spatial distribution have been investigated but more data is needed. Data is needed to quantify the threshold limit value for combined(e.g., dust and gas) contaminants and the relationships between exposure and respiratory responses of both human and animals. Although the pathogenesis of respiratory disorder caused by poor air quality still remains unclear, little argument exists that it has an adverse effect on human and animal health. Therefore, alternative air quality control strategies have been studied but new technologies to improve air quality still need to be researched and developed.